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Study unveils Mucosiffa® Cross-Neutralization Against BVDV Types 1 and 2

In a recent study published in scientific publication Vaccines, researchers confirm the cross-neutralization capabilities of Mucosiffa® vaccine against several strains of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Types 1 and 2.

The study involved testing the neutralizing antibody (NA) response of 9 heifers at different time points post-vaccination (28, 203, and 363 days) against BVDV-1a, -1b, -1e, -1f, and BVDV-2a strains.

Background information about Bovine Viral Diarrhea prevention

Bovine Viral Diarrhea is a widespread cattle pathogen belonging to the Pestivirus genus. This genus comprises various species. BVDV is classified into two species: Pestivirus A formerly BVD-1 and Pestivirus B formerly BVD-2. 

European countries employ control plans involving elimination of persistently infected calves, biosecurity measures, and sometimes vaccination. Bovine Viral Diarrhea vaccines can be either lived or inactivated, claiming fetal protection and to shield young cattle against BVDV horizontal infection, particularly within the framework of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Modified lived vaccines (MLV) are also known to induce longer protection from clinical disease than inactivated vaccines. Neutralizing antibodies, which target envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, play a crucial role in vaccine-induced immunity.

A key challenge in Bovine Viral Diarrhea vaccine development lies in offering comprehensive heterologous protection against diverse genotypes and sub-genotypes due to Pestivirus genetic and antigenic diversity. The Mucosiffa® vaccine, containing BVDV-1a Oregon C24 strain, effectively shields pregnant heifers against BVDV-1f Han strain challenge (as it is widely known that BVD symptoms are mostly reproductive disorders).  

This present study aimed to assess the development of neutralizing antibodies in Mucosiffa®-vaccinated animals against BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 sub-genotypes circulating in Europe at various time points post-vaccination.

Key points of the study

Cross-neutralization is a pivotal factor in assessing vaccine effectiveness. This is the ability of antibodies produced against a specific strain to neutralize other strains. While cross-neutralization typically exhibits greater potency against closely related strains, Mucosiffa® vaccination elicited a significant antibody response with cross-neutralizing capabilities against diverse BVDV strains. 

Indeed, BVDV-1a and -1b showed the strongest response, followed by BVDV-1e and BVDV-1f. BVDV-2a strains exhibited weaker cross-neutralization at D28 but interestingly, their response was comparable to the BVDV-1f Han strain at D303 and D363. This strain having been used for the one-year fetal protection studies. This finding implies that Mucosiffa® vaccination could potentially offer protection against both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2a infections.

Conclusion

The results indicated that Mucosiffa® vaccination generated a stable and lasting NA response against all tested BVDV strains. The NA response was most robust against BVDV-1a and -1b strains, and there were no significant differences between these sub-genotypes. Notably, the NA response against the BVDV-2a strains was similar to that observed against the BVDV-1f Han strain used in studies to validate the fetal protection claim of the vaccine. This suggests that Mucosiffa® vaccination provides humoral cross-immunity, potentially protecting against both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2a infections. The findings open new avenues for enhancing BVDV vaccines and safeguarding cattle herds.

For more detailed insights, access the full study here:

 Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Cross-Neutralization between Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Types 1 and 2 after Vaccination with a BVDV-1a Modified-Live-Vaccine (mdpi.com)

 

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